Read the previous part: What fertilizers are needed for various vegetable crops
We will now look at processing systems soil, crop cultivation technologies, plant protection systems, which are also an integral part of the new farming system. For landscape adaptation of agriculture, one must always know what this or that element of the system is for.
The soil cultivation system creates favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants and solves the following main tasks: retains moisture in the soil, improves its respiration, enriches the lower layers with oxygen. It keeps the arable layer in a fertile state and allows timely sowing of the necessary crops, care for them and harvesting, and also provides plants with protection from weeds, diseases and pests.
You can, of course, manually select from the soil all the roots and rhizomes of weeds, caterpillars and pupae, affected leaves and fruits, but this is not available to all gardeners. The system of soil cultivation at a specific site allows you to comprehensively solve many agrotechnical problems.
The cultivation system depends on the texture of the soil, the biology of individual crops, the current state of the soil in horticulture and the climatic conditions in the area. Light soils - sandy and sandy loam - require less operations, and heavy soils - clay and loamy - need to be loosened more often and organic and mineral fertilizers should be systematically applied, and in higher doses. These fertilizers reduce the cohesion of the soil and facilitate the process itself.
The processing system consists of three units-modules: autumn processing (summer-autumn), spring (pre-sowing) and processing during the growing season (plant care). Let's consider them separately.
In horticulture, autumn tillage is not given due attention, because of this, the soils are severely depleted in nutrients, overgrown with malicious root suckers, rhizome weeds, and are affected by many plant diseases and pests. In the fields overgrown with root-sprouting (sow-thistle, thistle, bindweed and others), rhizome (wheatgrass, coltsfoot and others) weeds, after harvesting, the soil must be peeled immediately (cultivation, tillage with a hoe). Peeling is most effective if it is done earlier, in August or early September. To do this, a hoe, a hoe, loosen the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm, cut the weeds into small pieces and thereby create favorable conditions for their germination.
After 2-3 weeks, when numerous shoots of weeds appear, fall plowing is carried out (digging with a shovel to the full depth of the arable layer with a rotation of the layer) with harrowing with a rake. At the same time, they try to bury all the shoots of weeds deeper, so that they suffocate from lack of oxygen, become exhausted when trying to get out into the light. The combination of stubble plowing and deep plowing (this is autumn cultivation) helps to effectively fight not only weeds, but also simultaneously destroy plant diseases and pests, and the soil retains its fertility.
If there are no root-sprouting and rhizome weeds, then the fall is raised without prior peeling. In some cases, plowing is transferred to spring. Spring plowing (digging) is recommended on the fields allocated for potatoes when applying organic fertilizers in the spring, as well as on floodplain lands flooded with hollow waters.
The best fall treatment is early fall during the warmer months. The direction of plowing and digging of the soil should be changed annually, which makes it possible to level out the microrelief and maintain a uniform depth of the arable layer throughout the plot. With prolonged warm autumn, weeds can germinate again. In this case, additional loosening is carried out, destroying the weeds by new peeling.
Fertilizers during autumn tillage, the soil is not introduced! After all, weeds, fed with fertilizers, come to life and do not die. In addition, fertilizers are completely unnecessary at this time, since there are no cultivated plants, the crop has already been harvested. In addition, in the fall, fertilizers are easily washed out with rains into the lower layers of the soil, polluting groundwater, they are lost uselessly in the form of gaseous products or turn into difficult-to-dissolve compounds.
Therefore, the autumn period of fertilization in the landscape farming system is not acceptable, all fertilizers need to be applied only in spring during spring treatments, then they are better preserved in an easily accessible form and are actively absorbed by plants. Fertilizers are also not applied in winter, since during this period there are no living plants, and there is no need to fertilize water or snow.
Soil tillage in spring
Spring tillage is needed to preserve moisture, apply fertilizers and create a loose fertile arable layer for sowing plants and growing future crops. In addition, spring treatment allows for better control of weeds and plant pests. The first and mandatory method is early spring harrowing. It disrupts the capillary structure of the soil, reduces the capillary rise of water to the surface and thereby reduces evaporation, preventing the soil from drying out, saving moisture reserves for seed germination and initial vegetative growth.
In areas where it has not been carried out, up to 4 kg of moisture from each square meter is lost in one sunny day. In addition, harrowing evens out the surface, improves the quality of further pre-sowing treatments, since wet soil is easily crumbled and easily processed. On heavy soils, plowing should be harrowed to a depth of at least 4-5 cm, in two tracks crosswise to each other. With an uneven onset of physical ripeness of the soil on the site, harrowing is carried out selectively and in several stages.
Following harrowing, cultivation is carried out - loosening the soil with a hoe or flat cutter. The depth of loosening on light sandy, loose sod or peaty soils, clean from weeds, is 6-8 cm, on heavy clay, loamy soils, at least 10-12 cm. Cultivation significantly improves the quality of subsequent treatments.
After harrowing and cultivation, shallow plowing or digging of the soil is carried out with the introduction of the entire complex of fertilizers. Organic, lime and mineral macro- and micronutrient fertilizers are scattered over the soil surface (spreading application), and then covered by plowing (shoveling) with a seam turnover to a depth of 18 cm.
When mastering the adaptive landscape system for 3-5 years, individual fertilization is used on each square meter (see table), achieving an increase and leveling of fertility. After the soil fertility is leveled and all the "cells" in the garden plot on the cartogram turn blue, the new adaptive landscape system can be considered mastered.
|The name of indicators||Technologies|
|traditional (B)||intense (B)||adaptive landscape (A)|
|Doses and ratio of fertilizers in agriculture|
|Doses of organic fertilizers, kg / m²||0-4||4-8||8-12|
|Doses of lime materials, kg / m2||0-0,3||0,3-0,6||0,6-1,0|
|Doses and ratios of NхРхК, g a.i. / m2 for grain and leguminous crops||0-2x4.5x2||3х5х3||4x6x4|
|Doses of magnesium fertilizers, g / m2||0||2||6|
|Application, g d.w. / m² - boric||0||0,5||1,5|
When plowing, when winter plowing has been carried out on the field, which is why spring plowing is called plowing, fertilizers can be applied by other methods as well - locally, line or tape. When applied locally, fertilizers come into contact with a smaller volume of soil, while the intensity of chemical reactions of fertilizers with the soil slows down, fertilizers are better preserved and for a longer time in a water-soluble state, more accessible to plants.
However, these techniques are more time consuming than spreading continuous application for plowing, they require a more accurate dosage of fertilizers. For line or belt application, fertilizers are placed compactly with a line or tape at the bottom of the furrow with a distance of 15-20 cm between them.
If fertilizers are applied using a plant feeder, then the distribution of fertilizers in the topsoil is called spot distribution. At the same time, tapes, lines and dots with fertilizers should be at a depth of 15-18 cm and at a distance of no more than 15-20 cm from each other.This gives the gardener the right to reduce the dose of fertilizers by 30%, while maintaining their effectiveness, environmental and landscape cleanliness and safety.
On fields not plowed since autumn, after harrowing, spring deep plowing is carried out to the full depth of the arable horizon. It allows you to make the entire arable horizon looser. To preserve moisture, spring plowing should be carried out with obligatory harrowing of the field. Under it, it is necessary to add all fertilizers and substances necessary for plants - lime, organic, mineral macro- and micronutrients. Soil cultivation during the growing season (plant care) in an adaptive landscape system is traditional for the corresponding crop.
For example, for potatoes after air-thermal heating of tubers at a temperature of + 6 ... + 8 ° C, sorting of tubers (there should be no patients at all, damaged tubers, substandard according to technology A should be no more than 3%, according to technology B - 5%, according to technology C - no more than 9%), the soil temperature when planting in the ridges should be at least 6 ° С, on a flat surface - at least 10 ° С. Cutting the ridges is carried out with a row spacing with technology A - 90 cm, with technology B - 75 cm, with technology B - 70 cm, and the tubers are planted. Then, inter-row cultivation of the potato field is carried out.
To combat weeds, the aisles are cultivated, the rows of potatoes are spud twice, the plantings are treated with drugs to protect plants from diseases and pests. During harvesting of potatoes, tubers are sorted. The soil content on them should exceed 3%, rotten tubers - no more than 1%. Ripening of tubers in the treatment period takes place at a temperature of + 16 ... + 18 ° C for 15 days. Then a bulkhead of tubers is carried out and diseased specimens are removed, then the potatoes are placed for storage at a temperature of + 3 ... + 4 ° C.
Read the next part: Technologies of an adaptive landscape farming system
Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
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